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          揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?

          發布時間:2018-09-12 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:老人們總說蟬壽命短,其實蟬是一種非常長壽的昆蟲,只是它的一生幾乎都是在暗無天日的地下度過的。作為一種不完全變態昆蟲,蟬的一生分為卵、幼蟲、成蟲三個階段。蟬媽媽把卵產在樹枝……
          揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?
              揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?入伏之后,祖國各地陸續進入酷熱炙烤模式。在這么熱的天里,讓人們睡不著的除了高溫,還有夏天特有的聲音——蟬鳴。關于蟬鳴,文學家賦予了太多的美好意象,但對我們普通人而言,這種聲音簡直就是穿腦的魔音。那么,蟬為什么要鳴叫,而且還用這么大的聲音叫這么久呢?
              因為它們在……尋求交配!對,真相就是這樣,如果你能聽得懂蟬鳴的內容,你大概會聽到這么一段內容:嗨!美女在么!嗨!美女你在忙么!嗨!美女快來跟我繁衍后代吧!
              看到這你是不是特別氣憤,沒想到這些灰不溜秋的蟲子居然是這種渣男。且慢,你先別忙著生氣,其實它們也是有苦衷的。
              老人們總說蟬壽命短,其實蟬是一種非常長壽的昆蟲,只是它的一生幾乎都是在暗無天日的地下度過的。作為一種不完全變態昆蟲,蟬的一生分為卵、幼蟲、成蟲三個階段。蟬媽媽把卵產在樹枝上,幼蟬孵出來就會立刻向下爬,一路鉆入土壤,開始了它們漫長的地下生活。它們要在地下藏多久呢?不是幾周,也不是幾個月,而是需要兩三年,甚至十幾年。對,也許現在在你耳邊叫個不停的蟬,正是十幾年前跟你一起出生的那只蟬。
          揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?
          蟬的幼蟲和成蟲(圖片來自《蟬文化對生態農業發展的啟示》 魏琦著)
              幼蟬在地下要呆這么久,一是本身發育慢,二是要等待時機,在最合適的時候才會破土而出。不同種的蟬會選擇它們出生后的第三、五、七、十一、十三或者十七年之后出土。
              它們為什么要挑這些年份呢?因為這些年份都是質數,即除了1和它本身以外沒有別的約數的數。當然,它們要挑這時候出土不是為了向你炫耀它們數學好,而是大自然進化的結果。要知道蟬在天敵面前幾乎沒有防御力,如果在同一年出生的蟬太多,它們不但會競爭養分,如果遇到天敵還容易全軍覆沒,所以它們選擇在質數的年份出生,這樣可以保證在同一年出土的蟬不會太多。比如要讓七年蟬、十三年蟬、十七年蟬在同一年出土,要等1547年之久,這大大降低了它們互相爭奪養分、被天敵團滅的風險。
              當幼蟬破土,在樹干上完成最后一次蛻皮變為成年蟬后,它們就離生命的終點不遠了。成年蟬的壽命很短,它必須盡快完成生命中最重要的一件事——繁殖后代。
          揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?
          幼蟬蛻皮過程(圖片來自《蟬文化對生態農業發展的啟示》 魏琦著)
              要繁殖后代,必須要先找到伴侶。但相比于一片森林或者一個公園,蟬實在是太小了,為了引起雌性的注意,小伙子們只有不斷高歌,才能介紹自己,同時表明自己的位置。
              對,擾人清夢的蟬都是有完整發音器的雄蟬,雌蟬因為發音器發育不全,所以并不會鳴叫。雄蟬腹部的發音器很像一個鼓,受到震動就會發出聲音。它的鳴肌每秒能伸縮約一萬次,蓋板和鼓膜之間是空的,還能起到共鳴的作用,因此蟬的叫聲特別響亮。而雌蟬通過它們的鳴叫就會大概了解這個聲音的主人健不健壯、是不是有繁衍能力,在一番考量后,雌蟬就會飛向她們相中的小伙子,完成交配。
              因為成年蟬的壽命很短,為了在有限的時間里找到伴侶,它們只好拼盡全力鳴叫,以獲得雌性的青睞,然后在交配后結束自己的生命。
              它們的叫聲雖然吵,但這是它們生命中最重要、也最短暫的時刻,它們是孤注一擲的情郎,唱著最高亢的情歌。如果你再聽到它們的歌聲,希望你能想到它那漫長而黑暗的地下歲月,想到它們擁有的短暫的陽光,小小地原諒它們一下。
          揭秘:夏天的蟬為什么叫個不停?難道真的是熱得難受嗎?
              蟬百科簡介:
              蟬(學名:Cicadidae;英文名:Cicada、Cicala 或 Cicale),動物界-節肢動物門-六足亞門-昆蟲綱-有翅亞綱-半翅目-頸喙亞目-蟬總科(同層次的有:角蟬總科、沫蟬總科、葉蟬總科、蠟蟬總科)的唯一一科。常見的蟬科動物是蟬,俗稱知了(蛭蟟)、蛣蟟或借落子。因各地方言不同,別稱也有相應的變化,更多請查看基本信息欄中的別稱。
              生活于世界溫帶至熱帶地區(已記錄約 2000 余種蟬)。一些分布于沙漠地區的種類,當體溫過熱時,會從背板(tergum)排出多余的水分,進而達到冷卻及散熱的效果。雄蟬腹部有發音器,能連續不斷發出尖銳的聲音。雌蟬不發聲,但腹部有發音器。
              蟬屬不完全變態(不完全變態發育)類昆蟲,由卵、幼蟲(若蟲),經過一次蛻皮,不經過蛹的時期而變為成蟲。幼蟲生活在地下吸食植物的根,成蟲吃植物的汁液。蟬若蟲俗稱蟬猴、知了猴、蛣蟟龜等。由于蟬無蛹期,俗稱蟬蛹是錯誤的。
           

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