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          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!

          發布時間:2018-08-08 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:與任何一顆鼎盛時期的恒星一樣,太陽主要由氫和氦組成,氫原子兩兩聚變形成氦,釋放出巨大的能量。太陽中的重元素,即金屬(這個術語不同于一般所認知的“金屬”,因為在宇宙中氫和氦……
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
              太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!太陽能活多少年是很多人都不去在意的問題,但天文學家們可沒少花心思,它們要估算出太陽的壽命,最近有科學家說太陽的壽命沒有預估的那么大,被高估了10億年,這究竟是怎么回事呢?下面跟著快嘴巴網小編一起來連一些究竟是怎么回事?
              我們賴以生存的不僅僅是地球,還有距離我們 1.5 億公里的太陽。這顆帶給我們光和熱的恒星,也給天文學家們帶來了一個又一個謎團。明白太陽的化學成分和運作原理并不如想象中容易,一步走錯,滿盤皆輸,影響會延伸到宇宙的每個角落。提前10億年走向死亡的太陽,推翻的將不僅是一個理論……
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
              掌握太陽命運的“金屬”
              與任何一顆鼎盛時期的恒星一樣,太陽主要由氫和氦組成,氫原子兩兩聚變形成氦,釋放出巨大的能量。太陽中的重元素,即金屬(這個術語不同于一般所認知的“金屬”,因為在宇宙中氫和氦的組成量占了壓倒性的大數量,天文學家將所有更重的元素都視為金屬)含量雖微,卻掌控著太陽的命運。
              瑞典斯德哥爾摩大學(Stockholm University)研究太陽“金屬豐度(metallicity)”的物理學家薩尼·瓦尼奧奇(Sunny Vagnozzi)解釋道:“極少量的金屬就足以徹底改變恒星的行為。”
              恒星的金屬豐度越高,不透明度就越高(因為金屬會吸收輻射)。恒星的不透明程度反過來又與它的大小、溫度、亮度、壽命等其他主要性質有關。瓦尼奧奇說:“金屬豐度基本上也能告訴你這顆恒星將如何死去。” 
              但是太陽的金屬豐度,除了揭示它自己的故事,還能夠作為一種衡量其他恒星金屬豐度的標尺,一窺宇宙中恒星、星系和其他一切星際物質的性質,比如年齡和溫度。
              澳大利亞國立大學(Australian National University)的天體物理學家馬丁·阿斯普朗德(Martin Asplund)說道:“如果我們對這把標尺做出了修正,就意味著我們對整個宇宙的理解也必須改變。因此對太陽化學成分的準確掌握極為重要。”
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
              相去甚遠的測量結果
              然而,隨著對太陽金屬豐度的測量越來越精準,所得數據在解答天文學家相關疑問的同時,也給引發了更多的問題。
              天文學家無法解釋諸如太陽的金屬豐度、物質含量、化學成分、模型建立問題等謎團,這意味著他們之前對太陽,乃至對所有恒星的理解可能都存在著“根本性偏差”。
              瓦尼奧奇認為:“后果將無法設想。”
              二十年前,天文學家自認為對太陽的理解足夠充分,直接和間接的測量結果都表明,太陽的金屬豐度在 1.8% 左右,多么令人欣慰的一致啊,天文學家們因此相信,他們不僅掌握了太陽這把標尺的“長度”,更明晰了太陽運作的秘密。
              但從 2000 年至今,越來越精確的太陽光譜測量,即太陽成分的直接探測(因為每一種元素都在會光譜中產生特征吸收線)表明,太陽的金屬豐度僅有 1.3%,遠低于之前的的測量結果。
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
          太陽光譜
              爭論陷入僵局
              如果天文學家提出的太陽理論,即“標準太陽模型”是正確的,那光譜學和日震學結果就應該一致,也就是說,利用日震學測量應該能計算出太陽中對流大于輻射的邊界層深度。根據方程式,這一深度與不透明度相關,進而計算出太陽的金屬豐度。這一系列的計算結果,應該與太陽光譜測量的直接測量所得金屬豐度結果相同。
              事實卻并非如此。
              領導團隊進行精確光譜測量的阿斯普朗德說:“這不僅是太陽物理學的問題,更是整個天文學的問題。要么天文學家不明白如何利用光譜學去測量恒星的元素豐度,要么我們對恒星內部及其震蕩頻率的理解有所遺漏。無論如何,影響都是巨大的,因為恒星是我們探測宇宙的基本方式,恒星天體物理學為現代天文學和宇宙學奠定了深厚的基礎。”
              耶魯大學(Yale University)的太陽天體物理學家薩巴尼·巴蘇(Sarbani Basu)表示,對可能出現的問題(包括太陽內部可能存在暗物質的猜測)探討多年之后,這場爭論已“陷入了一種僵局”。
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
          太陽內部結構
              隱晦的希望
              但希望仍存。最近,太陽中微子(solar neutrino),一種來自太陽的壽命極短的粒子,為太陽金屬豐度的測量提供了隱晦的線索。
              核聚變不同,產生的太陽中微子能量也就不同,因此太陽中微子攜帶了有關太陽成分的信息。
              今年6月在德國海德堡舉行的一次會議上,意大利格蘭薩索國家實驗室(Italy‘s Gran Sasso National Laboratory)對太陽中微子進行了檢測,結果稍傾向于太陽金屬豐度為 1.8% 的估計。
              如果這個更高的太陽金屬豐度估計值是正確的,那么阿斯普羅德團隊的光譜測量到底哪里出了問題?
              “如果問題出在光譜學上,那我們在分析其他恒星時,很可能也犯了同樣的錯誤。”他說。這將影響我們對恒星和包括銀河系在內的星系化學成分演化的解釋。
          太陽的壽命是多少年?科學家高估了10億年!
              太陽壽命的驟減
              但阿斯普倫德堅持認為,他 1.3% 的光譜測量估計是正確的。他指出,2015 年發表在《自然》雜志上的一項研究表明,在太陽核心的高壓環境下,金屬對不透明度的正影響可能遠超我們的預料。如果根據這個誤差對“標準太陽模型”進行修正,日震學和中微子對金屬豐度的測量結果有可能降至 1.3%。
              格蘭薩索國家實驗室的團隊,希望能在未來的幾年里探測到碳氮氧循環(CNO cycle)中產生的微量太陽中微子。碳氮氧循環是太陽內部的一種聚變反應,以碳、氮和氧三種原子作為氫聚變成氦的催化劑。
              團隊的合作者、馬薩諸塞大學阿姆赫斯特分校(University of Massachusetts Amherst)的物理學家安德里亞·波卡爾(Andrea Pocar)說:“碳氮氧循環產生的中微子受到金屬豐度的影響很大,所以探測這些中微子意義非凡。”
              如果太陽金屬豐度真的只有 1.3%,“標準太陽模型”則確實在不透明度方面存在問題。
              阿斯普朗德認為:“天文學的方方面面都會因此受到影響,對恒星演化的準確認識,幾乎奠定了一切的基礎。” 屆時,恒星和星系的估計年齡將不得不進行 10~15% 的修正。
              不幸的是,從太陽本身,以及地球上未來生命的角度來看,金屬豐度低的恒星比金屬豐度高的恒星燃燒得更快,因此,太陽的壽命可能比我們預想的要短 10 億年。
           

          上一篇:宇宙揭秘:十個將猛烈撞擊太陽系的災難事件!

          下一篇:太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!

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