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          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!

          發布時間:2018-08-08 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:合成生物學作為新興領域有望促進微生物為人類帶來更大的益處,基因編輯技術的進步使科學家再次編輯改良微生物基因,從而實現一些全新奇特的功能,例如:產生自然界中沒有的化學物質;……
          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!
              太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!想要移民到太空某一個新球,還需做很多的事情,沒有那么巧合,有一個新球進化的和地球一樣,雖然理論上有,但很渺茫,遇到相近的星球就可以才嘗試改良環境來達到的人類所需要的環境,目前,美國的科學家就在研究。
              新浪科技訊 北京時間8月7日消息,據國外媒體報道,當人類在浩瀚宇宙中尋找地外生命時,我們可能遇到的多數“外星生物體”是我們攜帶到太空的微生物。美國宇航局及其它機構的研究人員正在積極基因改良微生物,使它們具有幫助人類在地外星球生存的許多功能。
          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!
          微生物改良環境
              數千年以來,人類一直堅持不懈地利用微生物為我們帶來益處。過去我們曾用微生物制作面包、啤酒和奶酪,近代科學家利用微生物制造藥物,為農作物提供肥料,甚至制造生物燃料。
              合成生物學作為新興領域有望促進微生物為人類帶來更大的益處,基因編輯技術的進步使科學家再次編輯改良微生物基因,從而實現一些全新奇特的功能,例如:產生自然界中沒有的化學物質;充當生物傳感器,甚至進行計算處理。
              微生物的多樣化功能引起了美國宇航局的關注,特別是當美國宇航局規劃火星任務的時候。太空探索面臨的一個重大挑戰是將人類和維持生命的物資發送至太空的巨額費用,而在遠離地球的長期太空任務中,則需要花費數月時間發送新的物資。令人擔憂的是,藥物和食物等物資會隨著時間的推移而逐漸降解,所以即使我們的太空艙有充足空間運載,它們也不會持續保存很長時間。
          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!
              這就是為什么美國宇航局正在研究使用微生物制造重要營養物質和地外建筑材料的原因,關于營養物質的設想是一種裝有可產生特殊營養物質的基因改良細菌的“加水包”,研究人員已經用轉基因酵母證實了這一概念,這種酵母可以產生“玉米黃質(zeaxanthin)”——一種對視力健康非常重要的營養物質。
              對于建筑材料,研究人員的目標是使用物理和化學方法將二氧化碳(大量存在于火星大氣層)轉換成簡單的有機分子。之后基因改良微生物可以使用這些有機分子制造塑料、纖維和其它類型的原料,用于結合3D打印機制造棲息地、工具和零部件。
              美國宇航局并非唯一試圖將微生物實現太空應用的研究機構,美國加州大學伯克利分校研究人員正在基因設計微生物,能夠使火星土壤更適宜植物生長。
              美國宇航局“鳳凰號”探測車在火星表面探測到高含量高氯酸鹽(perchlorate)時,科學家在火星種植農作物的希望遭受重大挫折,高氯酸鹽是一種對生物體有毒的鹽物質。目前加州大學伯克利分校研究小組正在基因改良一種微生物,它能夠減少火星土壤中的高氯酸鹽,同時可以增加有助于植物生長所需的氨。
              美國麻省理工學院研究人員不僅專注于空間應用技術,還研發了一種合成生物系統,能夠按需定制藥物。他們沒有使用整個生物體,而是冷凍干燥DNA部分和其它生物分子放入一種可再水化球芯中,從而開始制造藥物。
          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!
              這種便攜式系統可用于設計處理一系列疾病的抗體,并且所用成本費用僅是傳統方法的一小部分,可再水化球芯能夠在室溫條件下運輸,并不需要任何專業技術。
              雖然這些項目正在研究之中,但其他研究人員仍在展望未來。2015年,美國宇航局和加州大學伯克利分校的研究人員在《英國皇家學會界面雜志》上發表一篇論文,概述了使用微生物支持人類在地外星球上的潛在生存機會。其中不僅有制造建筑原料、藥物和營養物質的項目,還有一些更大的計劃,例如:基因改良微生物制造酸物質,從而可以從巖石中提取有價值成分,用于制造生物膠,可以將火星灰塵粘合在一起形成建筑磚。
              同時,研究人員表示,當前有一定空間制造一個閉環系統,在該系統中所有廢物都會被微生物循環利用,從而制造有用的副產物。基因改良微生物燃料電池可以在產生電能的同時,從廢水中提取氮和磷等有用化學物質。
              用于堆肥固體廢料的細菌可用于制造一氧化二氮,這是一種潛在的火箭燃料。如果我們能夠讓微生物在棲息地的墻壁上繁衍,那么它們就能循環二氧化碳成為可呼吸氧氣,并提供一層自愈合的輻射保護層。
              進一步著眼于未來,研究人員假定這些合成生物體將結合在宇宙飛船和殖民地的控制系統中,作為一種生物傳感器和生物控制器,可以幫助他們發現和處理高劑量輻射,控制其它合成有機物調節過程。
              不過這僅是科學家的一些空想,在這些應用具體實現之前,仍需克服許多重大挑戰,尤其是一些理論上似乎可行的情況下,我們在地球上還沒有工具具體實現。在惡劣的太空環境中或者當前不適應居住的行星表面,更加難以實現。
          太空移民將要到來!美國開始用基因改良微生物、為太空殖民化作準備!
              在地球上最不適宜生存的地點(例如:深海熱液噴口或者北極冰層之下)生存的極端微生物(Extremophile microbes),能向合成生物學家提供指引,幫助他們基因設計生命更頑強的生物體。但是將這些特征無縫結合制造重要化學物質的能力或者進行有用研究工作,并非一件簡單的事情。
              迄今為止,我們所知道的任何生物都無法適應地球之外的任何引力環境。對進入太空的微生物實驗表明,大多數生物進入關閉非必需系統的損害控制模式,這很可能包含合成生物學家引入的基因改良途徑。理解引力影響微生物的不同等級很難進行測試,因為太空中進行實驗的成本費用很高。
              但是伴隨著CRISPR等制造合成生命體的新興技術和方法的出現,將加快該領域的發展速度,有望很快克服這些挑戰。這不僅有利于登陸其他星球的早期宇航員,還對生活在地球上的人們帶來更多益處。
              雖然這一解決方法不能“立竿見影”,但是生物學家仍不斷地研制合成生物技術,試圖解決太空旅行問題,并帶來地球上具有革命性的影響。他們的研究包括:實現個性化醫療、吸收大氣層中的二氧化碳,以及“零廢物”的生活方式。(葉傾城)
           

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