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          人參揭秘:人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?

          發布時間:2017-12-31 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:人參揭秘 :人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?在中國,人參被視為一種靈丹妙藥,具有包治百病的神奇功效。而現代醫學早已通過細致分析,指出人參的主要成分與胡……
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
              人參揭秘:人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?在中國,人參被視為一種靈丹妙藥,具有包治百病的神奇功效。而現代醫學早已通過細致分析,指出人參的主要成分“與胡蘿卜根差不多”。

          明朝以前,與干棗并列

              中國最早有關人參藥用價值的記錄,見于成書秦漢時期的《神農本草經》。東漢末年的張仲景在《傷寒論》中,說人參“主治心下痞堅,旁治不食嘔吐等”。后來南朝《名醫別錄》、唐朝《藥性本草》、宋朝《諸家本草》、元朝《用藥法象》等歷代醫書,對人參的藥用功能都有提及。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
              至明人李時珍編纂《本草綱目》,聲稱“人參治男婦一切虛癥”,包括“發熱自汗、眩暈頭痛”,及“痎疾、滑瀉久病”等,人參遂從普通中藥材種“脫穎而出”,登上“神藥”的地位。
              明代以前,中國人吃的人參,主要產于上黨地區(今山西長治),被稱為“上黨參”;其次是“遼東”地區(今遼寧西部)的“遼東參”(又稱“遼參”)。
              當時,人參只被視為一種普通食/藥材。比如,蘇軾在給朋友王定國的信中說,“必欲寄信,只多寄好干棗、人參為望。如無的便,亦不須差人,豈可以口腹萬里勞人哉。”在給章質夫的信中又說,“萬一有南來便人,為致人參、干棗數斤,朝夕所須也。”
              顯然,對蘇軾而言,人參和干棗一樣,是一種滿足”口腹“之欲的食品,而非保值百病的良藥。動輒托人順路帶上“數斤”,也說明這種食品在當時并不名貴。
              明代之前,也有少數人參品種被認為很名貴。比如,上黨參中有一種“紫團參”,據說僅生長在上黨地區的紫團山上。《夢溪筆談》里記載,王安石患有哮喘,需用紫團參醫治而不可得。有朋友送來幾兩,王安石堅辭不受,說:“平生無紫團參,亦活到今日”。不過,從蘇軾為滿足“口腹”之欲“朝夕”食用人參來看,普通上黨參在北宋,仍屬普通之物。
              人參價格也很能說明問題。直到明朝嘉靖年間,人參仍是一種很低廉的商品,一斤人參只要白銀1錢5分。
              萬歷年間,參價上漲至約3兩白銀/斤。按照《本草綱目》(成書萬歷年間)的說法,價格上漲的原因,是上黨的采參業沒落,市場上只剩下來自遼東的人參:
              “上黨,今潞州也。民以人參為地方害,不復采取。今所用者皆是遼參。”
              至崇禎時,參價已高達到16兩白銀/斤。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?

          政府與商人共同炒作

              人參地位大變,成為神藥,發生在清代。主要原因如下:
              一、人參被視為清朝王氣的具現
              人參的命名,有著很強的神秘性。比如,隋唐志怪傳奇小說《廣古今五行記》中有一個故事:“隋文帝時,上黨有人宅后每夜聞人呼聲,求之不得。去宅一里許,見人參枝葉異常,掘之入地五尺,得人參,一如人體,四肢畢備,呼聲遂絕”。
              李時珍編纂《本草綱目》,將這種志怪玄談視作人參藥效的由來,也寫了進去:“參漸長成者,根如人形,有神,故謂之人參、神草”。
              具體到清朝,因為產參的東北乃是“龍興之地”,充斥“王氣”,人參很自然地被視為這種“王氣”的具現。比如,乾隆年間的著名文人阮葵生認為:“自遼陽以東,山林中皆有之,蓋地氣所鐘,豈偶然哉”——明確將人參的生長與東北的地氣聯系在一起。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
              二、清廷壟斷人參貿易,推高參價暴漲,加劇民間的人參迷信
              上黨參從市場退出后,明朝從關外女真人手中大量進口遼東參,作為替代品。
              女真和明朝的人參貿易,數額極大,曾是女真最重要的財源。比如,從萬歷十一年七月到次年三月,8個月時間里,海西女真人在邊境和明朝交易26次,售出人參1733.75斤。萬歷十一年至萬歷十二年,明朝政府為購買人參付出了白銀3萬兩。為減輕國庫壓力,降低人參價格,明朝政府曾一度關閉邊境的貿易市場,導致建州女真積壓的10多萬斤人參全部爛掉。
              在糾葛不斷的人參貿易中,女真漸漸集聚起了對抗明朝的力量。
              清朝入關后,皇室繼續將人參貿易牢牢掌控在自己手中。清初,皇室在東北設有專門的采參組織“打牲烏拉總管衙門”,八旗王公也被允許派人到指定的山上采參。私人采參被嚴厲禁止,甚至有“采參處如遇漢人,一概緝捕”的詔令。
              乾隆年間,為加大對人參貿易的控制,又成立了“官參局”。規定凡進山采參的民眾,必須持有官府發放的憑證。官參局收上來的人參,部分上品供宮中使用,部分交給內務府售賣或處置,剩余的才賣給參商。
              清朝的人參管理制度極為復雜,其制度保證了東北人參貿易的利潤,大部分落入皇帝私囊——最多時,數額達到每年100萬兩白銀。
              朝廷壟斷人參貿易的結果,是參價的暴漲。比如,在江南地區,內務府指定“江南三織造”(江寧織造、杭州織造、蘇州織造)、粵海關等為人參特許經銷商。這些官辦經銷商不遺余力哄抬人參價格,至乾隆中期,人參價格已達到600~800兩白銀/斤;嘉慶年間,更突破至2000兩白銀/斤。
              參價的暴漲,與人參的神化相輔相成。生活在乾隆時期的醫生徐靈胎,寫過一篇《人參論》,提到時人存在著一種“因人參價格高而迷信其療效”的心理:
              “夫醫者之所以遇疾即用,而病家服之死而無悔者,何也?蓋愚人之心,皆以價貴為良藥,價賤為劣藥。”
              大意是:患者相信參價這么高,那人參自然是最好的藥。醫者也樂于利用患者這種心理,動輒給他們開人參吃——患者吃了人參后,若病情仍不見好轉,不會埋怨醫生。因為在他們看來,人參治不好的病,那肯定是真治不好了。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
          圖:乾隆末年到道光年間的人參價格(來自蔣竹山《人參帝國》)
              三、皇室大量服用人參,對民間起到示范效應
              大量上品人參被清宮留用,是因為皇室對人參的消耗量很大。
              據清宮檔案《人參上用底簿》,乾隆帝生命最后兩年,“共進人參三百五十九次,四等人參三十七兩九錢”。他還寫過一首《詠人參》詩,說人參“五葉三丫云吉擁,玉莖朱實露甘溥。地靈物產資陰騭,功著醫經注大端”。乾隆朝的妃嬪、公主也服用人參。
              慈禧太后也常吃人參。從光緒二十六年十月到次年九月,300多天的時間里,“共用噙化人參二斤一兩一錢。”
              清朝皇帝還時常用人參賞賜大臣。如大學士嵇曾筠請求回鄉養病,乾隆帝下令賞賜人參10斤;大學士傅恒在金川領兵作戰,水土不服,乾隆帝賞賜人參3斤。清朝的藩屬,如暹羅國王、安南國王等,也都收到過人參這種特別賞賜。⑧
              有了皇室帶頭示范,民間對人參“神效”的迷信一發不可收拾,有了“非參不治,服必完全”的執念。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
          圖:大會堂吉林廳展覽的“人參之王”,重285克
              四、江南“溫補”文化,迎合人參迷信
              從乾隆時期開始,江南發展起一種古怪的補藥文化。如當時的醫生徐大椿說:
              “今則以古圣之法為卑鄙不足道,又不能指出病名,惟以陽虛陰虛、肝氣腎弱等套語概之,專用溫補,以致外邪入里,馴至不救。”
              徐大椿的批評非常到位——當然,他所說的“外邪入里”云云,也同樣玄虛。當時,很多江南醫生喜開補藥。各種補藥之中,最受歡迎的,又數人參。
              醫界的這種風氣,其實也是在迎合時人的人參迷信。既然“都門諸貴人喜服人參,雖極清苦亦竭力購參以服之”——無論貧富,都相信通過人參溫補,能治好痼疾,那么作為醫生,最安全、最賺錢的辦法,無疑就是開藥時多開人參。
              此種溫補風氣之下,清朝還出現了一批“人參購買指南”。陳烜《人參譜》、唐秉鈞《人參考》、鄭昂《人參圖說》等介紹人參種類、產地、氣味、功效,教人們如何分辨人參的真偽的著作,都是當時的養生暢銷書。在這些暢銷書的運作下,人參出現了所謂“尖頂熟”“統頂”“條小”“統糙”“須條”“泡條”等上百種名目,以適應不同地區、不同消費水平的購買者。⑨
              清朝對人參的神化影響至今。時下仍有很多中國人相信,人參是一種包治百病的補藥。其實,科學檢測早已證實,被認為藥效最強的參根,主要成分為碳水化合物,與胡蘿卜相似;參根中的其他成分,在提取后也僅表現出很低的藥性。《美國國家藥典》早在1937年刪去了“參”(包括人參、西洋參),認為它們的醫療、保健價值只存在于中國人的想象之中。
          人參真的有那么好嗎?中國人從什么時候開始迷戀人參的?
          圖:清朝人參的部分分類(來自于蔣竹山《人參帝國》)
              注釋
              ①林仲凡:《有關人參的歷史考證》,《中國農史》1985年第4期;②孫文采,王嫣娟主編《中國人參文化》,新華出版社1994年,第199—220頁;③王鐵生主編:《中國人參》,遼寧科學技術出版社2001年,第36頁;④⑥⑧⑨蔣竹山:《人參帝國:清代人參的生產、消費與醫療》,浙江大學出版社2015年;⑤趙郁楠、曌峰:《清代東北人參售賣管理初探》,《故宮學刊》第7輯,紫禁城出版社2011年;⑦陳可冀:《清代內廷中人參的廣泛應用》。《國醫論壇》1986年第1期;⑩方舟子:《人參與西洋參:歷史與現實,神話與事實》,《科學世界》2003年第2期。
           

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