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          假如白袍將軍陳慶之能夠有援兵相助 歷史會不會被改寫?

          發布時間:2017-12-27 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:假如白袍將軍陳慶之能夠有援兵相助 歷史會不會被改寫?公元529年,中國北方大地流傳著一句響亮的童謠名師大將莫自牢,千兵萬馬避白袍。這個讓北魏王朝各路將領心驚膽寒的白袍,正是大……
          白袍將軍陳慶之
              假如白袍將軍陳慶之能夠有援兵相助 歷史會不會被改寫?公元529年,中國北方大地流傳著一句響亮的童謠“名師大將莫自牢,千兵萬馬避白袍”。這個讓北魏王朝各路將領心驚膽寒的白袍,正是大名鼎鼎的梁朝名將陳慶之。陳慶之以麾下白袍隊七千余眾兵力,連續擊敗數倍乃至數十倍于己的敵軍,并攻下了洛陽,創造了中國古代戰爭史上的不朽傳奇。
              然而短短六十余天,陳慶之就由巔峰跌入谷底,不但未能趁勝一鼓作氣收復中原,反而全軍覆沒僅以身免。
              后世往往嘆息梁武帝未能及時派兵增援陳慶之致其孤軍深入功敗垂成。我們不禁要問,假如梁武帝增兵北援,白袍隊能否再創奇跡?就請各位讀者跟隨筆者復盤這一過山車式的戰斗歷程,一起尋找答案。
          白袍將軍陳慶之

          一、僮仆將軍克壽陽

              公元523年六鎮大起義爆發,北魏大亂無暇南顧,梁武帝趁機連續發兵進攻北魏先前占領的淮南土地,重點是拿下江淮重鎮壽陽以保障國都建康安全。此時韋睿等能征慣戰的梁朝宿將早已離世,主帥裴邃在討伐過程中去世,后繼任將領不善指揮,梁魏雙方一時陷入僵持局面。
              同年北魏徐州刺史元法僧叛降梁朝,梁武帝派去接應的次子蕭綜叛逃北魏,梁軍群龍無首死傷數萬,彭城得而復失。唯有武威將軍陳慶之,不但先前擊敗北魏討伐軍,還在梁軍潰敗之際全軍而還。
              陳慶之自幼入梁武帝蕭衍府中為仆,耳濡目染精通圍棋,從中領悟了兵法謀略,雖然身體文弱卻足智多謀。梁武帝稱帝后任命陳慶之為主書,他在任上恭謹克己兢兢業業,散盡家財結交豪杰,希望有朝一日效命沙場。彭城之戰的精彩表現使得梁武帝對年逾不惑的陳慶之刮目相看。
              公元526年,陳慶之督統諸軍趁魏軍主力清剿河北起義軍之際攻取壽陽,實現了梁武帝的夙愿,因功封關中侯。
              梁軍趁勝北上渡淮,連戰連捷,挺進北魏控制的渦陽城下。魏軍主力趕來增援,前鋒抵達距離渦陽僅40里的駝澗。主帥曹仲宗等主張以逸待勞暫緩進擊,陳慶之卻堅持攻其不備,率200精騎突襲遠道而來的魏軍,擊敗對手挫其銳氣。
              梁魏兩軍在渦陽附近對峙近一年交戰上百次,雙方均到強弩之末疲憊不堪。曹仲宗面對魏軍修筑營壘意圖前后夾擊的情況,擔心腹背受敵打算退兵。陳慶之持節力阻,一方面譴責諸將貪生怕死唯知擄掠,另一方面以置之死地而后生激勵將士,并搬出梁武帝密詔接管了指揮權。
              他乘夜色掩護率軍偷襲,一夜攻取了魏軍在渦陽外圍的4個據點,并于天亮后以俘虜為先導趁勝攻打余下的9個據點,魏軍大敗棄城而逃,梁軍追擊斬獲無算。梁軍奪取渦陽進據城父,江淮全境收復。梁朝勢力挺進淮北,直接威脅到北魏在河南地區的統治和國都洛陽的安全。
          白袍將軍陳慶之

          二、連戰連勝入魏都

              渦陽大捷使得梁朝取得了劉宋元嘉北伐失敗后南朝在南北對峙中最有利的戰略態勢,北魏則因國內各地起義風起云涌被迫收縮軍力采取守勢。
              公元528年,晉北契胡貴族爾朱榮率軍擁立北魏孝莊帝南下洛陽,發動了“河陰之變”屠殺了胡太后為首的上千洛陽王公貴族和門閥官吏,一時間北魏宗室和官僚貴族為避禍紛紛南逃梁朝。同年冬十月,梁武帝封北魏流亡親王元顥為魏王,任命陳慶之率七千白袍隊護送元顥北還,第二年春進抵铚縣開始北伐。
              除關中萬俟丑奴義軍和各地零星的小股造反武裝,當時北魏的最主要對手就是青州的邢杲義軍和元顥陳慶之所部。北魏朝廷就先打邢杲還是先打元顥爭論激烈,最終考慮元顥孤弱、邢杲勢盛,加上對陳慶之壽陽渦陽兩戰表現出的戰力頗為忌憚,決定采取南守東攻策略,先平定邢杲再攜戰勝之威攻打元顥。
              元顥北還前得到梁武帝準許,招募了流落江南的若干北方人編入軍中,但人數不多且大多缺乏訓練和作戰經驗,北伐軍以陳慶之統帥的七千白袍隊為主力。
              北魏親王元暉業統帥諸將南下防御:兩萬羽林軍駐扎梁郡考城,將領丘大千率部七萬駐守梁郡首府睢陽城。丘大千在元法僧叛逃后梁魏彭城之戰中被陳慶之擊潰,對其十分忌憚,修筑了9座營壘抵御梁軍。陳慶之抓住對手對自己的畏懼心理和分兵防守的弱點,集中優勢兵力一天之內連破3處營壘,丘大千懾于梁軍兵鋒率部投降。元顥趁勝進駐睢陽,收降了數萬敗兵后登基稱帝。
              初戰告捷,北伐軍面對的局面并不樂觀:元暉業率兩萬禁衛軍駐守考城;北魏大將楊昱率羽林軍數萬駐守滎陽;爾朱世隆和老將王羆率一萬兵馬馳援虎牢;高歡率領十萬兵馬討伐羊侃取勝后西進;元天穆統帥討伐邢杲的魏軍取勝,匯合了爾朱兆所部人馬共計近十萬。不含留守洛陽的軍隊和爾朱榮親自統領的部隊,魏軍在河南山東一帶總兵力近三十萬,遠超元顥和陳慶之麾下軍力。
              陳慶之充分利用河陰之變以來北魏內部尖銳的矛盾,率部先攻考城迫降元暉業,而后揮師西進,北魏河南諸城望風而降,只有楊昱統率的滎陽守軍憑城固守。
              北魏朝廷派爾朱世隆和爾朱世承把守虎牢和軒轅,與滎陽形成鼎立之勢,七萬人馬共同抵御陳慶之;此時元天穆已基本平定青州邢杲義軍,正向河南地區進軍,他派遣爾朱兆為先鋒率精騎五千倍道兼程救援滎陽守軍。
              滎陽城內魏軍人多勢眾抵抗頑強,城外魏軍援軍不日將至。北伐軍攻勢受阻上下驚恐,陳慶之卻命士卒飽餐之后稍事休整,而后做了堪稱中國古代最精彩的作戰動員:
              “我們從江南家鄉一路北上,殺人掠地搶人妻女不勝枚舉,與魏軍結下了不共戴天之仇。如今敵人援軍將至,我軍七千敵軍三十萬眾,眾寡懸殊。如果不死戰求生我們將死無葬身之地。敵人以騎兵為主,我軍不可與之在平原交鋒。各位將士不要再驚懼狐疑,只有搶在敵人到來之前攻占滎陽憑城堅守才能贏得一線生機,狹路相逢勇者勝。”
              動員完畢,陳慶之下令擂鼓攻城,白袍隊奮勇爭先殺入城中,城內魏軍死傷慘重楊昱被俘。此時爾朱兆所部五千精騎已抵達滎陽城下,陳慶之趁其遠道而來立足未穩,率領三千騎兵出城突襲,將其一舉擊潰。
              滎陽之戰中陳慶之攻城速戰速決,野戰出其不意,堪稱南北朝時代的閃擊戰戰術大師。北魏河南各地守軍懼于白袍隊赫赫兵威,或逃或降,虎牢軒轅相繼失守。洛陽雖有數萬兵馬,但孝莊帝不敢以身犯險抵擋白袍隊兵鋒,北逃并州投奔爾朱榮,附近郡縣相繼投降元顥。北伐軍進入洛陽,白袍隊的功業達到頂峰。
          白袍將軍陳慶之

          三、猜忌日深危機伏

              福兮禍所伏。巨大的勝利讓陳慶之意識到身后的危機:魏軍趁元顥陳慶之率主力入洛陽之際重新攻占大梁滎陽等地,陳慶之被迫回軍收復失地,重新打通與梁朝的聯系。經此變動,陳慶之意識到麾下七千余眾白袍隊雖然勇悍善戰,但人數太少無法分兵守衛戰略要地,建議元顥向梁武帝請求援軍。
              元顥雖然還需依靠陳慶之抵御四面敵軍,但擔心本已橫行天下的陳慶之增兵后更加難制,便搶先向梁武帝上表,謊稱大局已定,爾朱榮殘兵容易對付,繼續增兵恐驚擾百姓。梁武帝據此不再增兵北援,只派了部分部隊在邊境觀望接應。
              回到我們在本文開篇提到的問題,假如梁武帝增兵北援,陳慶之是否能鞏固戰果再創奇跡?筆者對此持悲觀態度,我們可以從北伐軍、梁朝和北魏三方分析。
              首先,從北伐軍角度,陳慶之護王北還,從铚縣到洛陽轉戰千里,戰線過長。北伐軍雖以陳慶之七千白袍隊為主力,卻包含了元顥征募的流落江南的北方人,后期又補充了大量北魏降兵,成分十分復雜,其內部矛盾之激烈絲毫不亞于魏軍各部。陳慶之與元顥貌合神離,陳慶之請求增兵遭到元顥反對正說明了這點。
              梁武帝安排陳慶之護送元顥北還,根本目的是扶持一個聽話的傀儡政權對抗爾朱榮控制下的北魏朝廷,使其有所顧忌無力南侵,以保障江淮地區和梁朝腹地長江中下游的安全;陳慶之不僅擔任北伐主力,更起到對元顥的監視作用,這一點元顥心知肚明。
              進駐洛陽前強敵環伺,二人尚能勉力合作;當北伐軍進入洛陽,元顥得到大量北魏漢化貴族的擁戴后越發想擺脫傀儡的身份,對陳慶之增兵加強對自己控制的意圖愈發警惕。梁武帝如果增兵,雙方的矛盾將過早激化,梁軍先前險勝取得的戰果很可能快速毀于內訌。
              其次,從梁朝角度,梁武帝晚年的梁朝早就沒有了宋武帝劉裕氣吞萬里如虎的北府精兵強將和宋文帝三次元嘉北伐的大規模動員能力。早年天監北伐梁朝二十多萬大軍名將薈萃尚且與魏軍陷入對峙僵局,先勝后敗勉強保住鐘離。而后梁朝用了近二十年時間才奪回壽陽鞏固了江淮防線。鑒于元嘉北伐的悲慘結局,梁武帝對收復中原并無信心,對增兵能否擴大戰果持懷疑態度。
              梁朝軍事上的缺乏作為源于其內部嚴重的社會和軍事危機:高門士族在梁武帝的縱容下貪污腐敗,土地兼并嚴重通貨膨脹泛濫,百姓流離失所起義不斷,梁朝統治不穩無力外顧;同時梁朝沿襲魏晉時期的世兵制,士兵擔負沉重的兵役徭役,又被朝廷明文規定與奴婢并列,走投無路之下大量逃亡,梁朝以嚴刑峻法監管士兵反而引發更激烈的反抗。
              像陳慶之這種招募江湖豪杰組建白袍隊,散盡家財犒賞有功士兵的統帥鳳毛麟角,多數士兵被將領盤剝,生計困窘士氣低下戰力不強。以上兩方面因素相互作用,導致梁武帝很難調集更多精兵北援陳慶之。
              除此之外,當時梁朝高門世族把持政治資源,陳慶之出身卑微,靠自身戰功和梁武帝破格提拔晉升大將,在崇尚門第的南朝社會已屬奇跡。如果繼續增兵交由陳慶之統帥,一方面寒門執掌重兵易激化高門士族的不滿影響梁武帝統治,另一方面也會引發梁武帝的擔憂,害怕出現類似劉裕的大功權臣威脅皇權的危險。
              第三,從北魏角度,陳慶之的北伐充分利用了六鎮起義河陰之變造成的北魏國內混亂局面。對爾朱榮專權擅殺不滿的元暉業、楊昱等漢人門閥和漢化鮮卑貴族,迫于陳慶之軍威歸降,元天穆、費穆、王羆等諸將分別出自代北鮮卑軍人、洛陽鮮卑軍人和漢人豪強,彼此互不信任,導致數十萬魏軍缺乏配合被逐個擊破。
              然而陳慶之統帥的白袍隊在北魏境內殺人搶劫以戰養戰,雖然連戰連捷卻得罪了北魏百姓,導致元顥入洛陽后很快喪失了民心。相反,孝莊帝元子攸的政權雖因河陰之變一度遭到漢化鮮卑貴族和漢人門閥的反對,但由于爾朱榮平定葛榮起義后政局轉穩,加之北魏政權持續百余年的強大社會基礎,孝文漢化使其為漢人逐漸認同,孝莊帝在河陰之變后力圖擺脫爾朱榮的影響不斷拉攏漢人門閥。
              兩相對比,北魏各族百姓仍以孝莊帝為正統,日益厭棄元顥在梁朝刺刀下建立的偽政權,梁武帝即使增兵也難以改變民心向背,白袍隊的最終失敗在所難免。
          白袍將軍陳慶之

          四、曇花一現終成空

              元顥與陳慶之彼此猜忌日深,北魏朝廷卻從連續的失利中恢復過來。爾朱榮率十余萬大軍會合元天穆殘兵后攻取河內南下。陳慶之率部駐守黃河北岸北中城,元顥率軍防守黃河南岸,派其他將領沿河巡視。魏軍與陳慶之所部激戰三天,傷亡慘重仍未攻下北中城奪取渡橋,又缺乏船只,爾朱榮打算撤軍北返。
              部將楊侃獻策廣扎木筏強渡黃河,爾朱榮采納這一建議精選渡口萬筏齊發,趁夜偷渡黃河,相繼擊敗元顥和陳慶之所部收復洛陽和河南各郡縣。元顥逃亡路上被擒殺,白袍隊在嵩山遭遇山洪全軍覆沒,陳慶之僅以身免藏身佛寺,后抄小路逃回建康。南朝將士最后一次飲馬黃河入主洛陽的傳奇就此落下帷幕。
              陳慶之回朝后仍得到梁武帝重用,不僅率軍鎮壓了梁朝境內多路叛兵,還先后擊敗北魏及其后東魏名將孫騰、堯雄、侯景諸軍的進犯。他以輝煌的戰績維護了梁朝的安全,書寫了中國古代不朽的戰爭史詩之一。
           
          【陳慶之】陳慶之人物生平簡介

          陳慶之,南梁著名將領,又稱白袍軍,也稱為陳慶之兵團,是以南朝陳慶之為將帥的軍隊。陳慶之(484年~539年),字子云,漢族,義興國山(今中國江蘇省宜興市)人,中國南北朝時期南朝……

          上一篇:武則天稱帝以后的四個小故事

          下一篇:正月十五家家戶戶掛紅燈的來歷 原來和黃巢起義有關!

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