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          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?和中國傳說天狗有什么共同點!

          發布時間:2018-01-20 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?和中國傳說天狗有什么共同點!天狗是日本最廣為人知的妖怪之一。《山海經》中寫著天狗是有如狐貍般的動物,在日本則被稱之為天狐(住在天上的狐貍……
          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?
              日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?和中國傳說天狗有什么共同點!天狗是日本最廣為人知的妖怪之一。《山海經》中寫著天狗是有如狐貍般的動物,在日本則被稱之為天狐(住在天上的狐貍)。天狗臉是大紅色,有著高高的鼻子,有點像長臂猿,手持團扇,長得十分高大。住在深山之中,具有神力和超能力,具有讓人類感到KB的力量。背后有一雙翅膀,可以自由地翱翔于天空中、具有將人類撕成碎片的力氣,至今鞍馬寺仍供奉著天狗的雕像。據說天狗會把迷失在森林里的人拐走,所以古人稱被拐走的小孩叫做「神隱」,顧名思義就是被神明藏起來了。
          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?
              天狗的傳說,后來又融入了山岳信仰的宗教之中(天臺、真言密教兩宗),鐮倉時代《是害坊繪卷》描繪出天狗與天臺宗僧侶大戰,結果敗退的景象,動作如栩如生,相當有趣。據說在這個故事當中,來自中國的天狗軍團,前來向日本的天狗求援,但是日本的天狗擺出一副傲慢的態度,即日語中所謂的「自慢」、「鼻高高」。因此原本古代以「老鷹」為主要形象的天狗,到了中世后期轉變為「鼻高天狗」,并穿鑿附會說那些修行未臻火候、態度傲慢的山僧,死后會變成天狗。到了后世,更產生了天狗出現便會招致天下大亂的說法。對于引起各種不可思議現象的山僧,到底與天狗傳說是否有關聯,至今仍是個謎。 
          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?
              在中國的傳說中,日食、月食現象被說成是“天狗吃月亮”,恐慌的人們也會敲鑼打鼓放鞭炮來驅趕天狗。中國的天狗最早出自《山海經•西山經》中,原文是:又西三百里,曰陰山。濁浴之水出焉,而南流于番澤。其中多文貝,有獸焉,曰天狗,其狀如貍而白首,其音如榴榴,可以御兇。這種像貍而白首的動物很可能是某種古代哺乳動物,是真實存在過的。
              但日本的天狗感覺上就完全是來自于臆想了。關于日本天狗的由來,一種說法認為天狗的傳說是江戶時代隨中國商人一道傳到日本的,隨后在日本的流傳中被人們進行了一定程度的扭曲。另一種說法認為天狗是古代日本人對流星的恐懼與敬畏,并套用了中國神話中的天狗這個名稱。
          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?
              日本書紀中記載著欽明天皇時,曾有夾帶著巨大雷聲的流星劃過天際。僧旻對天皇說:那不是流星,是天狗(流星にあらず、これ天狗(あまつきつね)なり)。這時的天狗意象雖沒有明確地被指出,但根據僧旻所說的天狗的讀法,應該可以認為天狗一詞進入日語之初時,并非人的形象。不過,由于發音相同,有的地方“てんこう”一詞的漢字被訓為“天公”。這樣一來又似乎為天狗的人形意象提供的佐證,但其實應該考慮到年代的先后;無論如何欽明天皇之時的“天狗”總是早于“天公”的。 
              第三種說法是天狗是古代中國傳到日本的一種叫“天草”的藥材的音變,這種叫“天草”的植物日文讀做てんぐさ,它不同于日本地名、人名中“天草”あまぐさ的讀法,由于這種植物傳到日本后很快傳播開來,てんぐさ的名字也就這么叫開了,傳著傳著てんぐさ就變成了てんぐ,轉化成日文漢字就是“天狗”二字,至于“天草てんぐ”是怎么變成妖怪“天狗てんぐ”的,眾說紛紜,實在不可考證了。還有一種說法,從它的紅臉高鼻說起,有人認為他的起源應該是猿田彥命。也就是古事記中那個天孫降臨一節登場的接引神,書中描寫他相貌怪異、面色如紅酸漿。
              因為接引有功,被封為道祖神之一。而他的名字也賜給了天宇受賣命,使其改稱猿女君為物部氏之祖。其實這猿田彥命應該算是一個國津神的叛徒。此外還有說是來源與南蠻人的長相、變化為修驗道的山怪或是山地守護神以及破戒僧等說法,反正總之都不是什么好東西。甚至還有出現在平家物語中在崇德上皇處作祟的家伙。最離譜的說法是它的形象出自西洋傳來的天使形象。 
          日本神話中的妖怪天狗是什么動物?
              其實,日本天狗的形象也是不斷演變的。日本是個島國,以前與外界幾乎是完全隔絕的。不同于中國古代那般繁榮,世界各國的使節商人頻繁往來于中國的大都市中,人們對金發碧眼的蠻夷習以為常,日本人對那些早期到來的西方探險者和傳教士有種恐懼心理,相貌上的差異使他們難以接受,他們把大鼻子、紅臉頰、身材高大、金發碧眼的外國人形象和傳說中的天狗聯系在一起,確立了現在日本天狗的樣子也是很有可能的。
              對日本人來說天狗的存在是件非常恐怖的事情。天狗最大的特征是一張赤紅色的臉和一個長長的大鼻子,它還有一對翅膀,憑借翅膀天狗可以自由的翱翔于空中,這似乎和中國傳說中天狗的形象相距甚遠。
              在日本,作為山野神性與神秘性的具像化表現,天狗比其他的妖怪的地位多少要高出一些。在各種傳說中并不只代表惡登場,事實上還有相當多是以善神的形象出現的。其中最有名的大概就是鞍馬山的鬼一法眼了。它在義經家破人亡之際收留了他,教他武功、兵法和妖術,最終使義經報仇雪恨。可見,天狗的善德形象在日本民話中還是很有地位的。 
              最后要說的是,天狗中也是有等級之分的,大天狗和天狗地位較高(雷天狗的地位最高、無敵、超酷、飄逸、俊朗、性感......),除此之外還有一種叫鴉天狗(からすたんぐ)的怪物,外形比較像烏鴉,是天狗和大天狗的部下,這些家伙的形象多少好一點,比如在熊野山或是出羽三山作為權現或御神體的使者的形象出現,也有人說鴉天狗的原形是從印度傳來的迦樓羅……雖然聽來也有點不可思議,不過只從外形上看到是比較接近的。同時還有擔任警戒外圍的白狼天狗,木葉天狗,負責印刷的山伏天狗等等。
              在日本,天狗是身材高大、紅臉和大長鼻子,穿著修驗僧服、高齒木屐,手持羽扇和寶槌的奇怪怪物,一般住在山里,是擁有非常強大力量的妖怪。
           

          上一篇:日本男孩節:日本男孩節的來由及象征意義

          下一篇:日本道教文化中的四“御魂 ” 各自人性特點有哪些?

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