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          皮影戲:中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?

          發布時間:2017-12-29 編輯:管理員 瀏覽:
          導語:皮影戲:中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?皮影戲,又稱影子戲或燈影戲,是一種以獸皮或紙板做成的人物剪影以表演故事的民間戲劇。表演時,藝人們在白色幕布后面,一邊操縱影人……
          中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?
              皮影戲:中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?皮影戲,又稱“影子戲”或“燈影戲”,是一種以獸皮或紙板做成的人物剪影以表演故事的民間戲劇。表演時,藝人們在白色幕布后面,一邊操縱影人,一邊用當地流行的曲調講述故事,同時配以打擊樂器和弦樂,有濃厚的鄉土氣息。其流行范圍極為廣泛,并因各地所演的聲腔不同而形成多種多樣的皮影戲。
          中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?

          中國皮影戲的歷史淵源:

              皮影戲是中國民間古老的傳統藝術,老北京人都叫它“驢皮影”。據史書記載,皮影戲始于西漢,興于唐朝,盛于清代,元代時期傳至西亞和歐洲,可謂歷史悠久,源遠流長。
              2011年,中國皮影戲入選人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄。
              皮影戲從有文字記載,已經有2000多年的歷史,漢武帝愛妃李夫人染疾故去了,武帝的思念心切神情恍惚,終日不理朝政。大臣李少翁一日出門,路遇孩童手拿布娃娃玩耍,影子倒映于地栩栩如生。李少翁心中一動,用棉帛裁成李夫人影像,涂上色彩,并在手腳處裝上木桿。入夜圍方帷,張燈燭,恭請皇帝端坐帳中觀看。武帝看罷龍顏大悅,就此愛不釋手。這個載入《漢書》的愛情故事,被認為是皮影戲最早的淵源。
              中國皮影藝術從十三世紀元代起,隨著軍事遠征和海陸交往,相繼傳入了波斯(伊朗)、阿拉伯、土耳其、暹羅(泰國)、緬甸、馬來群島、日本以及英、法、德、意、俄等亞歐各國。
              明武宗正德戊辰三年(1508年)北京曾舉辦百戲大會,皮影戲參加了演出。另傳皮影自明中葉從蘭州和華亭先傳入河北涿州、后再傳到京西、北郊農村,然后入城并形成東、西城兩派。
              從清人入關至清末民初,中國皮影戲藝術發展到了鼎盛時期。當時很多官第王府豪門旺族鄉紳大戶,都以請名師刻制影人、蓄置精工影箱、私養影班為榮。在民間鄉村城鎮,大大小小皮影戲班比比皆是,一鄉一市有二三十個影班也不足為奇。無論逢年過節、喜慶豐收、祈福拜神、嫁娶宴客、添丁祝壽,都少不了搭臺唱影。連本戲(連續劇)要通宵達旦或連演十天半月不止,一個廟會可出現幾個影班搭臺對擂唱影,熱鬧非凡,其盛狀可想而知。
              清代北京皮影已很普及。除深受農民、市民歡迎外,還進入到宮廷。康熙時,禮親王府設有八位食五品俸祿的官員專管影戲。嘉慶時逢年過節等喜慶日子還傳皮影班進宅表演。當時的北京影戲班白天演木偶,夜晚則于堂會唱影戲,有不少京劇演員也參加影戲班演出。
              到了清代后期,曾有些地方官府害怕皮影戲的黑夜場所聚眾起事,便禁演影戲,甚至捕辦皮影藝人。皮影藝人還曾受清末白蓮教起義的牽連,被以“玄燈匪”的罪名遭到查抄。日軍入侵前后,又因社會動蕩和連年戰亂,民不聊生,致使盛極一時的皮影行業萬戶凋零,一蹶不振。
              1949年后,全國各地殘存的皮影戲班、藝人又開始重新活躍,從1955年起,先后組織了全國和省、市級的皮影戲匯演,并屢次派團出國訪問演出,進行文化藝術交流,頗有成果。但到“文革”時,皮影藝術再次遭“破四舊”的噩運,從此元氣大傷。
          中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?

          皮影戲的藝術特色:

              皮影戲是中國一種民間藝術形式。中國西北部甘肅的隴東皮影主要分布于平涼、慶陽各縣,較為集中的為東臨陜西、寧夏的三角地帶。
              演皮影戲的操耍技巧和唱功,是皮影戲班水平高低的關鍵。而操耍和演唱都是經師父心傳口授和長期勤學苦練而成的。在演出時,藝人們都有操縱影人、樂器伴湊合道白配唱同時兼顧的本領。有的高手一人能同時操耍七、八個影人。武打場面是緊鑼密鼓,影人槍來劍往、上下翻騰,熱鬧非凡。而文場的音樂與唱腔卻又是音韻繚繞、優美動聽。或激昂或纏綿,有喜有悲、聲情并茂,動人心弦。
              由于皮影戲中的車船馬轎、奇妖怪獸都能上場,飛天入地、隱身變形、噴煙吐火、劈山倒海都能表現,還能配以各種皮影特技操作和聲光效果,所以演出大型神話劇的奇幻場面之絕,在百戲中非皮影戲莫屬。
          中國皮影戲的來由及藝術特色你知道嗎?

          皮影戲的代表作品有哪些?

              皮影戲的演出,有歷史演義戲、民間傳說戲、武俠公案戲、愛情故事戲、神話寓言戲、時裝現代戲等等,無所不有。折子戲、單本戲和連本戲的劇目繁多,數不勝數。常見的傳統劇目有白蛇傳、拾玉鐲、西廂記、秦香蓮、牛郎織女、楊家將、岳飛傳、水滸傳、三國演義、西游記、封神榜等等。從革命戰爭年代起到解放后,新發展出的時裝戲、現代戲和童話寓言劇,常見的劇目有兄妹開荒、白毛女、劉胡蘭、小二黑結婚、小女婿、林海雪原、紅燈記、龜與鶴、兩朋友、東郭先生等等。
           

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